E0011 Leaf from a Bible (Biblia Sacra Latina, Versio Vulgata)

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E0011 Leaf from a Bible (Biblia Sacra Latina, Versio Vulgata)




Italy; Middle 13th Century. Latin Text; Rotunda Gothic Script.

In 1217, St. Dominic, the founder of the order which bears his name, withdrew from France and settled in Italy. Here, in the next four and last years of his life, he founded sixty more chapters of the Dominican order. Many of the younger members of the order studied at the University of Bologna and, while there, produced a great number of these small portable Bibles, just as did their brothers at the University of Paris in France and the University of Oxford in England.

There was a difference in the art of the scriptoria in the various countries. In England and France the ideal of craftsmanship was very high, while at this time, in Italy, a rather casual attitude prevailed. In the 13th century, Italy was distraught by the long struggle between the papal and anti-imperialistic Guelphs and the autocratic and imperialistic Ghibellines. Little encouragement was given by either party to the arts. This leaf reveals, however, the skill and keen eyesight which were necessary for the writing of ten of these lines to the inch.

This leaf's vellum is thin and supple, with minimal yellowing. It is lead-lined and includes blue, red, and black ink. Though not illuminated, this leaf includes decorative initials with flourishes, as well as red and blue book numbers and chapter names. Phrases are highlighted in red, which also marks the first letter of each sentence.

Text: 3 John 3-15; Jude (entire) (recto); prologue to Apocalypse and Apocalypse 1:1-2:7 (verso).


Fifty Original Leaves from Medieval Manuscripts


Middle 13th century


Item in public domain. Description provided by Dr. Fred Porcheddu-Engel via the Otto F. Ege digital collection. http://ege.denison.edu/denison_leaf_11.php


300 dpi JPEG; 19.5 x 13 cm




Medieval manuscript leaf


Denison University Leaf 11, Fifty Original Leaves from Medieval Manuscripts


Recto Translation:

[3 John 3-15]

3 I was exceedingly glad when the brethren came and gave testimony to the truth in thee, even as thou walkest in the truth. 4 I have no greater grace than this, to hear that my children walk in truth. 5 Dearly beloved, thou dost faithfully whatever thou dost for the brethren, and that for strangers, 6 Who have given testimony to thy charity in the sight of the church: whom thou shalt do well to bring forward on their way in a manner worthy of God. 7 Because, for his name they went out, taking nothing of the Gentiles. 8 We therefore ought to receive such, that we may be fellow helpers of the truth. 9 I had written perhaps to the church: but Diotrephes, who loveth to have the pre-eminence among them, doth not receive us. 10 For this cause, if I come, I will advertise his works which he doth, with malicious words prating against us. And as if these things were not enough for him, neither doth he himself receive the brethren, and them that do receive them he forbiddeth, and casteth out of the church. 11 Dearly beloved, follow not that which is evil, but that which is good. He that doth good, is of God: he that doth evil, hath not seen God. 12 To Demetrius testimony is given by all, and by the truth itself, yea and we also give testimony: and thou knowest that our testimony is true. 13 I had many things to write unto thee: but I would not by ink and pen write to thee. 14 But I hope speedily to see thee, and we will speak mouth to mouth. Peace be to thee. Our friends salute thee. Salute the friends by name.

Here ends the Letter of John. Here begins the letter of Jude the Apostle.

[Jude (entire)]

1 Jude, the servant of Jesus Christ, and brother of James: to them that are beloved in God the Father, and preserved in Jesus Christ, and called. 2 Mercy unto you, and peace, and charity be fulfilled. 3 Dearly beloved, taking all care to write unto you concerning your common salvation, I was under a necessity to write unto you: to beseech you to contend earnestly for the faith once delivered to the saints. 4 For certain men are secretly entered in, (who were written of long ago unto this judgment,) ungodly men, turning the grace of our Lord God into riotousness, and denying the only sovereign Ruler, and our Lord Jesus Christ. 5 I will therefore admonish you, though ye once knew all things, that Jesus, having saved the people out of the land of Egypt, did afterwards destroy them that believed not: 6 And the angels who kept not their principality, but forsook their own habitation, he hath reserved under darkness in everlasting chains, unto the judgment of the great day. 7 As Sodom and Gomorrha, and the neighbouring cities, in like manner, having given themselves to fornication, and going after other flesh, were made an example, suffering the punishment of eternal fire. 8 In like manner these men also defile the flesh, and despise dominion, and blaspheme majesty. 9 When Michael the archangel, disputing with the devil, contended about the body of Moses, he durst not bring against him the judgment of railing speech, but said: The Lord command thee. 10 But these men blaspheme whatever things they know not: and what things soever they naturally know, like dumb beasts, in these they are corrupted. 11 Woe unto them, for they have gone in the way of Cain: and after the error of Balaam they have for reward poured out themselves, and have perished in the contradiction of Core. 12 These are spots in their banquets, feasting together without fear, feeding themselves, clouds without water, which are carried about by winds, trees of the autumn, unfruitful, twice dead, plucked up by the roots, 13 Raging waves of the sea, foaming out their own confusion; wandering stars, to whom the storm of darkness is reserved for ever. 14 Now of these Enoch also, the seventh from Adam, prophesied, saying: Behold, the Lord cometh with thousands of his saints, 15 To execute judgment upon all, and to reprove all the ungodly for all the works of their ungodliness, whereby they have done ungodly, and of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against God. 16 These are murmurers, full of complaints, walking according to their own desires, and their mouth speaketh proud things, admiring persons for gain's sake. 17 But you, my dearly beloved, be mindful of the words which have been spoken before by the apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ, 18 Who told you, that in the last time there should come mockers, walking according to their own desires in ungodlinesses. 19 These are they, who separate themselves, sensual men, having not the Spirit. 20 But you, my beloved, building yourselves upon your most holy faith, praying in the Holy Ghost, 21 Keep yourselves in the love of God, waiting for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ, unto life everlasting. 22 And some indeed reprove, being judged: 23 But others save, pulling them out of the fire. And on others have mercy, in fear, hating also the spotted garment which is carnal. 24 Now to him who is able to preserve you without sin, and to present you spotless before the presence of his glory with exceeding joy, in the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, 25 To the only God our Saviour through Jesus Christ our Lord, be glory and magnificence, empire and power, before all ages, and now, and for all ages of ages. Amen.

Here ends the letter of Jude the Apostle. Here begins the prologue to the apocalypse of John the Apostle.

Verso Translation: [27 lines of prologue unstranscribed.]

[Apocalypse 1:1-2:7]

1 The Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave unto him, to make known to his servants the things which must shortly come to pass: and signified, sending by his angel to his servant John, 2 Who hath given testimony to the word of God, and the testimony of Jesus Christ, what things soever he hath seen. 3 Blessed is he, that readeth and heareth the words of this prophecy; and keepeth those things which are written in it; for the time is at hand. 4 John to the seven churches which are in Asia. Grace be unto you and peace from him that is, and that was, and that is to come, and from the seven spirits which are before his throne, 5 And from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, the first begotten of the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth, who hath loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood, 6 And hath made us a kingdom, and priests to God and his Father, to him be glory and empire for ever and ever. Amen. 7 Behold, he cometh with the clouds, and every eye shall see him, and they also that pierced him. And all the tribes of the earth shall bewail themselves because of him. Even so. Amen. 8 I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, saith the Lord God, who is, and who was, and who is to come, the Almighty. 9 I John, your brother and your partner in tribulation, and in the kingdom, and patience in Christ Jesus, was in the island, which is called Patmos, for the word of God, and for the testimony of Jesus. 10 I was in the spirit on the Lord's day, and heard behind me a great voice, as of a trumpet, 11 Saying: What thou seest, write in a book, and send to the seven churches which are in Asia, to Ephesus, and to Smyrna, and to Pergamus, and to Thyatira, and to Sardis, and to Philadelphia, and to Laodicea. 12 And I turned to see the voice that spoke with me. And being turned, I saw seven golden candlesticks: 13 And in the midst of the seven golden candlesticks, one like to the Son of man, clothed with a garment down to the feet, and girt about the paps with a golden girdle. 14 And his head and his hairs were white, as white wool, and as snow, and his eyes were as a flame of fire, 15 And his feet like unto fine brass, as in a burning furnace. And his voice as the sound of many waters. 16 And he had in his right hand seven stars. And from his mouth came out a sharp two edged sword: and his face was as the sun shineth in his power. 17 And when I had seen him, I fell at his feet as dead. And he laid his right hand upon me, saying: Fear not. I am the First and the Last, 18 And alive, and was dead, and behold I am living for ever and ever, and have the keys of death and of hell. 19 Write therefore the things which thou hast seen, and which are, and which must be done hereafter. 20 The mystery of the seven stars, which thou sawest in my right hand, and the seven golden candlesticks. The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches. And the seven candlesticks are the seven churches.
1 Unto the angel of the church of Ephesus write: These things saith he, who holdeth the seven stars in his right hand, who walketh in the midst of the seven golden candlesticks: 2 I know thy works, and thy labour, and thy patience, and how thou canst not bear them that are evil, and thou hast tried them, who say they are apostles, and are not, and hast found them liars: 3 And thou hast patience, and hast endured for my name, and hast not fainted. 4 But I have somewhat against thee, because thou hast left thy first charity. 5 Be mindful therefore from whence thou art fallen: and do penance, and do the first works. Or else I come to thee, and will move thy candlestick out of its place, except thou do penance. 6 But this thou hast, that thou hatest the deeds of the Nicolaites, which I also hate. 7 He, that hath an ear, let him hear...


Recto Transcription: [column A]

testimónium perhibéntibus veritáti tuæ, sicut tu in veritáte ámbulas. Majórem horum non hábeo grátiam, quam ut áudiam fílios meos in veritáte ambuláre. Caríssime, fidéliter facis quidquid operáris in fratres, et hoc in peregrínos, qui testimónium reddidérunt caritáti tuæ in conspéctu ecclésiæ: quos, benefáciens, dedúces digne Deo. Pro nómine enim ejus profécti sunt, nihil accipiéntes a géntibus. Nos ergo debémus suscípere hujúsmodi, ut cooperatóres simus veritátis. Scripsíssem fórsitan ecclésiæ: sed is qui amat primátum génere in eis, Diótrephes, non récipit nos: propter hoc si vénero, commonébo ejus ópera, quæ facit, verbis malígnis gárriens in nos: et quasi non ei ista suffíciant, neque ipse súscipit fratres: et eos qui suscípiunt, próhibet, et de ecclésia éjicit. Caríssime, noli imitári malum, sed quod bonum est. Qui benefácit, ex Deo est: qui malefácit, non vidit Deum. Demétrio testimónium rédditur ab ómnibus, et ab ipsa veritáte, sed et nos testimónium perhibémus: et nosti quóniam testimónium nostrum verum est. Multa hábui tibi scríbere: sed nólui per atraméntum et cálamum scríbere tibi. Spero autem prótinus te vidére, et os ad os loquémur. Pax tibi. Salútant te amíci. Salúta amícos nominátim.

Explicit epistola Iohanni. Incipit epistola Iudae apostoli.

Judas Jesu Christi servus, frater autem Jacóbi, his qui sunt in Deo Patre diléctis, et Christo Jesu conservátis, et vocátis. Misericórdia vobis, et pax, et cáritas adimpleátur. Caríssimi, omnem sollicitúdinem fáciens scribéndi vobis de commúni vestra salúte, necésse hábui scríbere vobis: déprecans supercertári semel tráditæ sanctis fídei. Subintroiérunt enim quidam hómines (qui olim præscrípti sunt in hoc judícium) ímpii, Dei nostri grátiam transferéntes in luxúriam, et solum Dominatórem, et Dóminum nostrum Jesum Christum negántes. Commónere autem vos volo, sciéntes semel ómnia, quóniam Jesus pópulum de terra Ægýpti salvans, secúndo eos, qui non credidérunt, pérdidit: ángelos vero, qui non servavérunt suum principátum, sed dereliquérunt suum domicílium, in judícium magni diéi, vínculis ætérnis sub calígine reservávit. Sicut Sodóma, et Gomórrha, et finítimæ civitátes símili modo exfornicátæ, et abeúntes post carnem álteram, factæ sunt exémplum, ignis ætérni pœnam sustinéntes. Simíliter et hi carnem quidem máculant, dominatiónem autem spernunt, majestátem autem blas-

[column B]

-phémant. Cum Míchaël Archángelus cum diábolo dísputans altercarétur de Móysi córpore, non est ausus judícium inférre blasphémiæ: sed dixit: Ímperet tibi Dóminus. Hi autem quæcúmque quidem ignórant, blasphémant: quæcúmque autem naturáliter, tamquam muta animália, norunt, in his corrumpúntur. Væ illis, quia in via Cain abiérunt, et erróre Bálaam mercéde effúsi sunt, et in contradictióne Core periérunt! Hi sunt in épulis suis máculæ, convivántes sine timóre, semetípsos pascéntes, nubes sine aqua, quæ a ventis circumferéntur, árbores autumnáles, infructuósæ, bis mórtuæ, eradicátæ, fluctus feri maris, despumántes suas confusiónes, sídera errántia: quibus procélla tenebrárum serváta est in ætérnum. Prophetávit autem et de his séptimus ab Adam Enoch, dicens: Ecce venit Dóminus in sanctis míllibus suis fácere judícium contra omnes, et argúere omnes ímpios de ómnibus opéribus impietátis eórum, quibus ímpie égerunt, et de ómnibus duris, quæ locúti sunt contra Deum peccatóres ímpii. Hi sunt murmuratóres querulósi, secúndum desidéria sua ambulántes, et os eórum lóquitur supérba, mirántes persónas quæstus causa. Vos autem caríssimi, mémores estóte verbórum, quæ prædícta sunt ab apóstolis Dómini nostri Jesu Christi, qui dicébant vobis, quóniam in novíssimo témpore vénient illusóres, secúndum desidéria sua ambulántes in impietátibus. Hi sunt, qui ségregant semetípsos, animáles, Spíritum non habéntes. Vos autem caríssimi superædificántes vosmetípsos sanctíssimæ vestræ fídei, in Spíritu Sancto orántes, vosmetípsos in dilectióne Dei serváte, exspectántes misericórdiam Dómini nostri Jesu Christi in vitam ætérnam. Et hos quidem argúite judicátos: illos vero salváte, de igne rapiéntes. Áliis autem miserémini in timóre: odiéntes et eam, quæ carnális est, maculátam túnicam. Ei autem qui potens est vos conserváre sine peccáto et constitúere ante conspéctum glóriæ suæ immaculátos in exsultatióne in advéntu Dómini nostri Jesu Christi, soli Deo Salvatóri nostro, per Jesum Christum Dóminum nostrum, glória et magnificéntia, impérium et potéstas ante omne sǽculum, et nunc, et in ómnia sǽcula sæculórum. Amen.

Explicit epistola Iude apostoli. Incipit prologus in apocalyptum Iohannis apostolorum

Verso Transcription: [column A]

[27 lines of prologue untranscribed.]

Explicit prologus. Incipit liber apocalipsis.

Apocalýpsis Jesu Christi, quam dedit illi Deus palam fácere servis suis, quæ opórtet fíeri cito: et significávit, mittens per ángelum suum servo suo Joánni, qui testimónium perhíbuit verbo Dei, et testimónium Jesu Christi, quæcúmque vidit. Beátus qui legit, et audit verba prophetíæ hujus, et servat ea, quæ in ea scripta sunt: tempus enim prope est. Joánnes septem ecclésiis, quæ sunt in Ásia. Grátia vobis, et pax ab eo, qui est, et qui erat, et qui ventúrus est: et a septem spirítibus qui in conspéctu throni ejus sunt: et a Jesu Christo, qui est testis fidélis, primogénitus mortuórum, et princeps regum terræ, qui diléxit nos, et lavit nos a peccátis nostris in sánguine suo, et fecit nos regnum, et sacerdótes Deo et Patri suo: ipsi glória et impérium in sǽcula sæculórum. Amen. Ecce venit cum núbibus, et vidébit eum omnis óculus, et qui eum pupugérunt. Et plangent se super eum omnes tribus terræ. Étiam: amen. Ego sum alpha et ómega, princí-

[column B]

-pium et finis, dicit Dóminus Deus: qui est, et qui erat, et qui ventúrus est, omnípotens. Ego Joánnes frater vester, et párticeps in tribulatióne, et regno, et patiéntia in Christo Jesu: fui in ínsula, quæ appellátur Patmos, propter verbum Dei, et testimónium Jesu: fui in spíritu in domínica die, et audívi post me vocem magnam tamquam tubæ, dicéntis: Quod vides, scribe in libro: et mitte septem ecclésiis, quæ sunt in Ásia, Ephéso, et Smyrnæ, et Pergámo, et Thyatíræ, et Sardis, et Philadélphiæ, et Laodíciæ. Et convérsus sum ut vidérem vocem, quæ loquebátur mecum: et convérsus vidi septem candelábra áurea: et in médio septem candelabrórum aureórum, símilem Fílio hóminis vestítum pódere, et præcínctum ad mamíllas zona áurea: caput autem ejus, et capílli erant cándidi tamquam lana alba, et tamquam nix, et óculi ejus tamquam flamma ignis: et pedes ejus símiles auricálco, sicut in camíno ardénti, et vox illíus tamquam vox aquárum multárum: et habébat in déxtera sua stellas septem: et de ore ejus gládius utráque parte acútus exíbat: et fácies ejus sicut sol lucet in virtúte sua. Et cum vidíssem eum, cécidi ad pedes ejus tamquam mórtuus. Et pósuit déxteram suam super me, dicens: Noli timére: ego sum primus, et novíssimus, et vivus, et fui mórtuus, et ecce sum vivens in sǽcula sæculórum: et hábeo claves mortis, et inférni. Scribe ergo quæ vidísti, et quæ sunt, et quæ opórtet fíeri post hæc. Sacraméntum septem stellárum, quas vidísti in déxtera mea, et septem candelábra áurea: septem stellæ, ángeli sunt septem ecclesiárum: et candelábra septem, septem ecclésiæ sunt. II. Ángelo Ephési ecclésiæ scribe: Hæc dicit, qui tenet septem stellas in déxtera sua, qui ámbulat in médio septem candelabrórum aureórum: Scio ópera tua, et labórem, et patiéntiam tuam, et quia non potes sustinére malos: et tentásti eos, qui se dicunt apóstolos esse, et non sunt: et invenísti eos mendáces: et patiéntiam habes, et sustinuísti propter nomen meum, et non defecísti. Sed hábeo advérsum te, quod caritátem tuam primam reliquísti. Memor esto ítaque unde excíderis: et age pœniténtiam, et prima ópera fac: sin autem, vénio tibi, et movébo candelábrum tuum de loco suo, nisi pœniténtiam égeris. Sed hoc habes, quia odísti facta Nicolaitárum, quæ et ego odi. Qui habet aurem, áudi-



“E0011 Leaf from a Bible (Biblia Sacra Latina, Versio Vulgata),” Digital Exhibits | Denison University Archives & Special Collections, accessed April 23, 2019, http://exhibits.denisonarchives.org/items/show/35.