E0044 Leaf from a Bible (Biblia Sacra Latina, Versio Vulgata)

ACC Ege44 recto.jpg
ACC Ege44 verso.jpg


E0044 Leaf from a Bible (Biblia Sacra Latina, Versio Vulgata)




Germany; Late 15th Century. Latin Text; Semi-Gothic Script.

The Vulgate Bible, a translation credited to St. Jerome, was adopted by the Catholic Church as the authorized version. This leaf was written in Germany nearly sixty years after the invention of printing by movable type. Its semi-gothic book hand is very similar to the type-faces used by the early printers. The numerous contractions and marks of abbreviation have been inserted boldly, but the little strokes which were added to help identify the letters "i" and "u" are barely visible.

The new art of printing concerned itself at once with the printing of Bibles of folio size, in Latin as well as the vernacular. In Germany, prior to the discovery of America, twelve printed editions of the Bible appeared in the German language and many others in Latin. An oversupply developed, and more than one printer of Bibles was forced into bankruptcy.

The vellum is slightly yellowed and thick, bending easily. There is only vertical evidence of lining, which is done in red; the bulk of the text is in dark brown with red decoration. An unusual feature of each of these leaves is the significant repair to the upper inside corners (i.e., toward the binding, not on the outer edge).

Text: 2 Chronicles 34:18-33 (recto) and 35:1-18 (verso).


Fifty Original Leaves from Medieval Manuscripts


Late 15th century


Item in public domain. Description provided by Dr. Fred Porcheddu-Engel via the Otto F. Ege digital collection. http://ege.denison.edu/denison_leaf_44.php


300 dpi JPEG; 41 x 28 cm




Medieval manuscript leaf


Denison University Leaf 44, Fifty Original Leaves from Medieval Manuscripts


Recto Translation:

[2 Chronicles 34:18-33, here called "Paralipomenon"]

...book. And he read it before the king. 19 And when he had heard the words of the law, he rent his garments: 20 And he commanded Helcias, and Ahicam the son of Saphan, and Abdon the son of Micha, and Saphan the scribe, and Asaa the king's servant, saying: 21 Go, and pray to the Lord for me, and for the remnant of Israel, and Juda, concerning all the words of this book, which is found: for the great wrath of the Lord hath fallen upon us, because our fathers have not kept the words of the Lord, to do all things that are written in this book. 22 And Helcias and they that were sent with him by the king, went to Olda the prophetess, the wife of Sellum the son of Thecuath, the son of Hasra keeper of the wardrobe: who dwelt in Jerusalem in the Second part: and they spoke to her the words above mentioned. 23 And she answered them: Thus saith the Lord the God of Israel: Tell the man that sent you to me: 24 Thus saith the Lord: Behold I will bring evils upon this place, and upon the inhabitants thereof, and all the curses that are written in this book which they read before the king of Juda. 25 Because they have forsaken me, and have sacrificed to strange gods, to provoke me to wrath with all the works of their hands, therefore my wrath shall fall upon this place, and shall not be quenched. 26 But as to the king of Juda that sent you to beseech the Lord, thus shall you say to him: Thus saith the Lord the God of Israel: Because thou hast heard the words of this book, 27 And thy heart was softened. and thou hast humbled thyself in the sight of God for the things that are spoken against this place, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and reverencing my face, hast rent thy garments, and wept before me: I also have heard thee, saith the Lord. 28 For now I will gather thee to thy fathers, and thou shalt be brought to thy tomb in peace: and thy eyes shall not see all the evil that I will bring upon this place, and the inhabitants thereof. They therefore reported to the king all that she had said. 29 And he called together all the ancients of Juda and Jerusalem. 30 And went up to the house of the Lord, and all the men of Juda, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the priests and the Levites, and all the people from the least to the greatest. And the king read in their hearing, in the house of the Lord, all the words of the book. 31 And standing up in his tribunal, he made a covenant before the Lord to walk after him, and keep his commandments, and testimonies, and justifications with all his heart, and with all his soul, and to do the things that were written in that book which he had read. 32 And he adjured all that were found in Jerusalem and Benjamin to do the same: and the inhabitants of Jerusalem did according to the covenant of the Lord the God of their fathers. 33 And Josias took away all the abominations out of all the countries of the children of Israel: and made all that were left in Israel, to serve the Lord their God. As long as he lived they departed not from the Lord the God of their fathers.

[5 lines untranscribed.]

Verso Translation:

[2 Chronicles 35:1-18, here called Paralipomenon]

1 And Josias kept a phase to the Lord in Jerusalem, and it was sacrificed on the fourteenth day of the first month. 2 And he set the priests in their offices, and exhorted them to minister in the house of the Lord. 3 And he spoke to the Levites, by whose instruction all Israel was sanctified to the Lord, saying: Put the ark in the sanctuary of the temple, which Solomon the son of David king of Israel built: for you shall carry it no more: but minister now to the Lord your God, and to his people Israel. 4 And prepare yourselves by your houses, and families according to your courses, as David king of Israel commanded, and Solomon his son hath written. 5 And serve ye in the sanctuary by the families and companies of Levi. 6 And being sanctified kill the phase, and prepare your brethren, that they may do according to the words which the Lord spoke by the hand of Moses. 7 And Josias gave to all the people that were found there in the solemnity of the phase, of lambs and of kids of the flocks, and of other small cattle thirty thousand, and of oxen three thousand, all these were of the king's substance. 8 And his princes willingly offered what they had vowed, both to the people and to the priests and the Levites. Moreover Helcias, and Zacharias, and Jahiel rulers of the house of the Lord, gave to the priests to keep the phase two thousand six hundred small cattle, and three hundred oxen. 9 And Chonenias, and Semeias and Nathanael, his brethren, and Hasabias, and Jehiel, and Jozabad princes of the Levites, gave to the rest of the Levites to celebrate the phase five thousand small cattle, and five hundred oxen. 10 And the ministry was prepared, and the priests stood in their office: the Levites also in their companies, according to the king's commandment. 11 And the phase was immolated: and the priests sprinkled the blood with their hand, and the Levites flayed the holocausts: 12 And they separated them to give them by the houses and families of every one, and to be offered to the Lord, as it is written in the book of Moses, and with the oxen they did in like manner. 13 And they roasted the phase with fire, according to that which is written in the law: but the victims of peace offerings they boiled in caldrons, and kettles, and pots, and they distributed them speedily among all the people. 14 And afterwards they made ready for themselves, and for the priests: for the priests were busied in offering of holocausts and the fat until night: wherefore the Levites prepared for themselves, and for the priests the sons of Aaron last. 15 And the singers the sons of Asaph stood in their order, according to the commandment of David, and Asaph, and Heman, and Idithun the prophets of the king: and the porters kept guard at every gate, so as not to depart one moment from their service: and therefore their brethren the Levites prepared meats for them. 16 So all the service of the Lord was duly accomplished that day, both in keeping the phase, and offering holocausts upon the altar of the Lord, according to the commandment of king Josias. 17 And the children of Israel that were found there, kept the phase at that time, and the feast of unleavened bread seven days. 18 There was no phase...


Recto Transcription:

[column A]

librum. Quem cum rege præsénte recitásset, audissétque ille verba legis, scidit vestiménta sua: et præcépit Helcíæ, et Áhicam fílio Saphan, et Abdon fílio Micha, Saphan quoque scribæ, et Ásaæ servo regis, dicens: Ite, et oráte Dóminum pro me, et pro relíquiis Israël et Juda, super univérsis sermónibus libri istíus, qui repértus est: magnus enim furor Dómini stillávit super nos, eo quod non custodíerint patres nostri verba Dómini ut fácerent ómnia quæ scripta sunt in isto volúmine. Ábiit ergo Helcías, et hi qui simul a rege missi fúerant, ad Oldam prophétidem, uxórem Sellum fílii Thécuath fílii Hasra custódis véstium, quæ habitábat in Jerúsalem in Secúnda: et locúti sunt ei verba quæ supra narrávimus. At illa respóndit eis: Hæc dicit Dóminus Deus Israël: Dícite viro qui misit vos ad me: Hæc dicit Dóminus: Ecce ego indúcam mala super locum istum et super habitatóres ejus, cunctáque maledícta quæ scripta sunt in libro hoc, quem legérunt coram rege Juda. Quia dereliquérunt me, et sacrificavérunt diis aliénis, ut me ad iracúndiam provocárent in cunctis opéribus mánuum suárum, idcírco stillábit furor meus super locum istum, et non extinguétur. Ad regem autem Juda, qui misit vos pro Dómino deprecándo, sic loquímini: Hæc dicit Dóminus Deus Israël: Quóniam audísti verba volúminis, atque emóllitum est cor tuum, et humiliátus es in conspéctu Dei super his quæ dicta sunt contra locum hunc et habitatóres Jerúsalem,

[column B]

reveritúsque fáciem meam scidísti vestiménta tua, et flevísti coram me: ego quoque exaudívi te, dicit Dóminus. Jam enim cólligam te ad patres tuos, et inféreris in sepúlchrum tuum in pace: nec vidébunt óculi tui omne malum quod ego inductúrus sum super locum istum, et super habitatóres ejus. Retulérunt ítaque regi cuncta quæ díxerat. At ille convocátis univérsis majóribus natu Juda et Jerúsalem, ascéndit in domum Dómini, unáque omnes viri Juda et habitatóres Jerúsalem, sacerdótes et Levítæ, et cunctus pópulus a mínimo usque ad máximum. Quibus audiéntibus in domo Dómini, legit rex ómnia verba volúminis: et stans in tribunáli suo, percússit fœdus coram Dómino ut ambuláret post eum, et custodíret præcépta, et testimónia, et justificatiónes ejus in toto corde suo, et in tota ánima sua, facerétque quæ scripta sunt in volúmine illo, quod légerat. Adjurávit quoque super hoc omnes qui repérti fúerant in Jerúsalem et Bénjamin: et fecérunt habitatóres Jerúsalem juxta pactum Dómini Dei patrum suórum. Ábstulit ergo Josías cunctas abominatiónes de univérsis regiónibus filiórum Israël: et fecit omnes qui resídui erant in Israël, servíre Dómino Deo suo. Cunctis diébus ejus non recessérunt a Dómino Deo patrum suórum.

[5 lines of rubrication untranscribed.]

Verso Transcription:

[column A]

Fecit autem Josías in Jerúsalem Phase Dómino, quod immolátum est quartadécima die mensis primi: et constítuit sacerdótes in offíciis suis, hortatúsque est eos ut ministrárent in domo Dómini: Levítis quoque, ad quorum eruditiónem omnis Israël sanctificabátur Dómino, locútus est: Pónite arcam in sanctuário templi, quod ædificávit Sálomon fílius David rex Israël, nequáquam enim eam ultra portábitis: nunc autem ministráte Dómino Deo vestro, et pópulo ejus Israël. Et præparáte vos per domos et cognatiónes vestras in divisiónibus singulórum, sicut præcépit David rex Israël, et descrípsit Sálomon fílius ejus. Et ministráte in sanctuário per famílias turmásque Levíticas, et sanctificáti immoláte Phase: fratres étiam vestros, ut possint juxta verba quæ locútus est Dóminus in manu Móysi fácere, præparáte. Dedit prætérea Josías omni pópulo qui ibi fúerat invéntus in solemnitáte Phase, agnos et hædos de grégibus et réliqui pécoris trigínta míllia, boum quoque tria míllia: hæc de regis univérsa substántia. Duces quoque ejus sponte quod vóverant, obtulérunt, tam pópulo quam sacerdótibus et Levítis. Porro Helcías, et Zacharías, et Jáhiel príncipes domus Dómini dedérunt sacerdótibus ad faciéndum Phase pécora commíxtim duo míllia sexcénta, et boves trecéntos. Chonénias autem, et Semeías, étiam Nathánaël fratres ejus, necnon Hasábias, et Jéhiel, et Jozábad príncipes Levitárum, dedérunt céteris Levítis ad celebrándum Phase

[column B]

quinque míllia pécorum, et boves quingéntos. Præparatúmque est ministérium, et stetérunt sacerdótes in offício suo: Levítæ quoque in turmis, juxta regis impérium. Et immolátum est Phase: asperserúntque sacerdótes manu sua sánguinem, et Levítæ detraxérunt pelles holocaustórum: et separavérunt ea ut darent per domos et famílias singulórum, et offerréntur Dómino, sicut scriptum est in libro Móysi: de bobus quoque fecérunt simíliter. Et assavérunt Phase super ignem, juxta quod in lege scriptum est: pacíficas vero hóstias coxérunt in lebétibus, et cacábis, et ollis, et festináto distribuérunt univérsæ plebi: sibi autem et sacerdótibus póstea paravérunt, nam in oblatióne holocaustórum et ádipum usque ad noctem sacerdótes fuérunt occupáti, unde Levítæ sibi et sacerdótibus fíliis Áaron paravérunt novíssimis. Porro cantóres fílii Asaph stabant in órdine suo, juxta præcéptum David, et Asaph, et Heman, et Ídithun prophetárum regis: janitóres vero per portas síngulas observábant, ita ut nec puncto quidem discéderent a ministério: quam ob rem et fratres eórum Levítæ paravérunt eis cibos. Omnis ígitur cultúra Dómini rite compléta est in die illa, ut fácerent Phase, et offérrent holocáusta super altáre Dómini, juxta præcéptum regis Josíæ. Fecerúntque fílii Israël, qui repérti fúerant ibi, Phase in témpore illo, et solemnitátem azymórum septem diébus. Non fuit Phase



“E0044 Leaf from a Bible (Biblia Sacra Latina, Versio Vulgata),” Digital Exhibits | Denison University Archives & Special Collections, accessed April 23, 2019, http://exhibits.denisonarchives.org/items/show/64.