E0013 Leaf from an Oxford Bible (Biblia Sacra Latina, Versio Vulgata)

ACC Ege13 recto.jpg
ACC Ege13 verso.jpg


E0013 Leaf from an Oxford Bible (Biblia Sacra Latina, Versio Vulgata)




England (Oxford); Middle 13th Century. Latin Text; Angular Gothic Script.

It is usually difficult to dinstinguish the miniature or portable Bibles made by the young Dominican friars in England from those written in France. At times the colophon tells us that a book was executed in the Sorbonne, the newly founded school of theology in Paris, or in the University Center at Oxford. The Dominican order was founded in 1216 A.D. and soon spread all over Europe. About 1219 A.D., King Alexander of Scotland met St. Dominic in Paris and persuaded him to send some members of his brotherhood to Scotland. From here they spread to England. The original master text was carelessly transcribed again and again. It may even have been incorrectly copied from the Alcuinian text written for Charlemagne. Therefore, "correctories" had to be made. In the latter part of the 13th century, Roger Bacon condemned unsparingly manuscripts which, although they were skillfully and beautifully written, transmitted inaccuracies of text.

The vellum of this leaf is fine, thin, and supple, with no yellowing. The leaf is lined in brown ink, with brown ink for the text and decorations in red and blue. There is no illumination. The initials are flourished, and book name and chapter numbers are also done in color.

Text: 1 Timothy 1:9-4:10 (recto) and 4:10-6:19 (verso).


Fifty Original Leaves from Medieval Manuscripts


Middle 13th century


Item in public domain. Description provided by Dr. Fred Porcheddu-Engel via the Otto F. Ege digital collection. http://ege.denison.edu/denison_leaf_13.php


300 dpi JPEG; 20 x 14 cm




Medieval manuscript leaf


Denison University Leaf 13, Fifty Original Leaves from Medieval Manuscripts


Recto Translation:

[1 Timothy 1:9-4:10]

...the just man, but for the unjust and disobedient, for the ungodly, and for sinners, for the wicked and defiled, for murderers of fathers, and murderers of mothers, for manslayers, 10 For fornicators, for them who defile themselves with mankind, for menstealers, for liars, for perjured persons, and whatever other thing is contrary to sound doctrine, 11 Which is according to the gospel of the glory of the blessed God, which hath been committed to my trust. 12 I give thanks who hath strengthened me, even to Christ Jesus our Lord, for that he hath counted me faithful, putting me in the ministry; 13 Who before was a blasphemer, and a persecutor, and contumelious. But I obtained the mercy of God, because I did it ignorantly in unbelief. 14 Now the grace of our Lord hath abounded exceedingly with faith and love, which is in Christ Jesus. 15 A faithful saying, and worthy of all acceptation, that Christ Jesus came into this world to save sinners, of whom I am the chief. 16 But for this cause have I obtained mercy: that in me first Christ Jesus might shew forth all patience, for the information of them that shall believe in him unto life everlasting. 17 Now to the king of ages, immortal, invisible, the only God, be honour and glory for ever and ever. Amen. 18 This precept I commend to thee, O son Timothy; according to the prophecies going before on thee, that thou war in them a good warfare, 19 Having faith and a good conscience, which some rejecting have made shipwreck concerning the faith. 20 Of whom is Hymeneus and Alexander, whom I have delivered up to Satan, that they may learn not to blaspheme.

1 I desire therefore, first of all, that supplications, prayers, intercessions, and thanksgivings be made for all men: 2 For kings, and for all that are in high station: that we may lead a quiet and a peaceable life in all piety and chastity. 3 For this is good and acceptable in the sight of God our Saviour, 4 Who will have all men to be saved, and to come to the knowledge of the truth. 5 For there is one God, and one mediator of God and men, the man Christ Jesus: 6 Who gave himself a redemption for all, a testimony in due times. 7 Whereunto I am appointed a preacher and an apostle, (I say the truth, I lie not,) a doctor of the Gentiles in faith and truth. 8 I will therefore that men pray in every place, lifting up pure hands, without anger and contention. 9 In like manner women also in decent apparel: adorning themselves with modesty and sobriety, not with plaited hair, or gold, or pearls, or costly attire, 10 But as it becometh women professing godliness, with good works. 11 Let the woman learn in silence, with all subjection. 12 But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to use authority over the man: but to be in silence. 13 For Adam was first formed; then Eve. 14 And Adam was not seduced; but the woman being seduced, was in the transgression. 15 Yet she shall be saved through childbearing; if she continue in faith, and love, and sanctification, with sobriety.

1 A faithful saying: if a man desire the office of a bishop, he desireth a good work. 2 It behoveth therefore a bishop to be blameless, the husband of one wife, sober, prudent, of good behaviour, chaste, given to hospitality, a teacher, 3 Not given to wine, no striker, but modest, not quarrelsome, not covetous, but 4 One that ruleth well his own house, having his children in subjection with all chastity. 5 But if a man know not how to rule his own house, how shall he take care of the church of God? 6 Not a neophyte: lest being puffed up with pride, he fall into the judgment of the devil. 7 Moreover he must have a good testimony of them who are without: lest he fall into reproach and the snare of the devil. 8 Deacons in like manner chaste, not double tongued, not given to much wine, not greedy of filthy lucre: 9 Holding the mystery of faith in a pure conscience. 10 And let these also first be proved: and so let them minister, having no crime. 11 The women in like manner chaste, not slanderers, but sober, faithful in all things. 12 Let deacons be the husbands of one wife: who rule well their children, and their own houses. 13 For they that have ministered well, shall purchase to themselves a good degree, and much confidence in the faith which is in Christ Jesus. 14 These things I write to thee, hoping that I shall come to thee shortly. 15 But if I tarry long, that thou mayest know how thou oughtest to behave thyself in the house of God, which is the church of the living God, the pillar and ground of the truth. 16 And evidently great is the mystery of godliness, which was manifested in the flesh, was justified in the spirit, appeared unto angels, hath been preached unto the Gentiles, is believed in the world, is taken up in glory.

1 Now the Spirit manifestly saith, that in the last times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to spirits of error, and doctrines of devils, 2 Speaking lies in hypocrisy, and having their conscience seared, 3 Forbidding to marry, to abstain from meats, which God hath created to be received with thanksgiving by the faithful, and by them that have known the truth. 4 For every creature of God is good, and nothing to be rejected that is received with thanksgiving: 5 For it is sanctified by the word of God and prayer. 6 These things proposing to the brethren, thou shalt be a good minister of Christ Jesus, nourished up in the words of faith, and of the good doctrine which thou hast attained unto. 7 But avoid foolish and old wives' fables: and exercise thyself unto godliness. 8 For bodily exercise is profitable to little: but godliness is profitable to all things, having promise of the life that now is, and of that which is to come. 9 A faithful saying and worthy of all acceptation. 10 For therefore we labor and are reviled, because we hope in the living God, who is the Saviour of all men, especially...

Verso Translation:

[1 Timothy 4:10-6:19]

...who is the Saviour of all men, especially of the faithful. 11 These things command and teach. 12 Let no man despise thy youth: but be thou an example of the faithful in word, in conversation, in charity, in faith, in chastity. 13 Till I come, attend unto reading, to exhortation, and to doctrine. 14 Neglect not the grace that is in thee, which was given thee by prophesy, with imposition of the hands of the priesthood. 15 Meditate upon these things, be wholly in these things: that thy profiting may be manifest to all. 16 Take heed to thyself and to doctrine: be earnest in them. For in doing this thou shalt both save thyself and them that hear thee.

1 An ancient man rebuke not, but entreat him as a father: young men, as brethren: 2 Old women, as mothers: young women, as sisters, in all chastity. 3 Honour widows, that are widows indeed. 4 But if any widow have children, or grandchildren, let her learn first to govern her own house, and to make a return of duty to her parents: for this is acceptable before God. 5 But she that is a widow indeed, and desolate, let her trust in God, and continue in supplications and prayers night and day. 6 For she that liveth in pleasures, is dead while she is living. 7 And this give in charge, that they may be blameless. 8 But if any man have not care of his own, and especially of those of his house, he hath denied the faith, and is worse than an infidel. 9 Let a widow be chosen of no less than threescore years of age, who hath been the wife of one husband. 10 Having testimony for her good works, if she have brought up children, if she have received to harbour, if she have washed the saints' feet, if she have ministered to them that suffer tribulation, if she have diligently followed every good work. 11 But the younger widows avoid. For when they have grown wanton in Christ, they will marry: 12 Having damnation, because they have made void their first faith. 13 And withal being idle they learn to go about from house to house: and are not only idle, but tattlers also, and busybodies, speaking things which they ought not. 14 I will therefore that the younger should marry, bear children, be mistresses of families, give no occasion to the adversary to speak evil. 15 For some are already turned aside after Satan. 16 If any of the faithful have widows, let him minister to them, and let not the church be charged: that there may be sufficient for them that are widows indeed. 17 Let the priests that rule well, be esteemed worthy of double honour: especially they who labour in the word and doctrine: 18 For the scripture saith: Thou shalt not muzzle the ox that treadeth out the corn: and, The labourer is worthy of his reward. 19 Against a priest receive not an accusation, but under two or three witnesses. 20 Them that sin reprove before all: that the rest also may have fear. 21 I charge thee before God, and Christ Jesus, and the elect angels, that thou observe these things without prejudice, doing nothing by declining to either side. 22 Impose not hands lightly upon any man, neither be partaker of other men's sins. Keep thyself chaste. 23 Do not still drink water, but use a little wine for thy stomach's sake, and thy frequent infirmities. 24 Some men's sins are manifest, going before to judgment: and some men they follow after. 25 In like manner also good deeds are manifest: and they that are otherwise, cannot be hid.

1 Whosoever are servants under the yoke, let them count their masters worthy of all honour; lest the name of the Lord and his doctrine be blasphemed. 2 But they that have believing masters, let them not despise them, because they are brethren; but serve them the rather, because they are faithful and beloved, who are partakers of the benefit. These things teach and exhort. 3 If any man teach otherwise, and consent not to the sound words of our Lord Jesus Christ, and to that doctrine which is according to godliness, 4 He is proud, knowing nothing, but sick about questions and strifes of words; from which arise envies, contentions, blasphemies, evil suspicions, 5 Conflicts of men corrupted in mind, and who are destitute of the truth, supposing gain to be godliness. 6 But godliness with contentment is great gain. 7 For we brought nothing into this world: and certainly we can carry nothing out. 8 But having food, and wherewith to be covered, with these we are content. 9 For they that will become rich, fall into temptation, and into the snare of the devil, and into many unprofitable and hurtful desires, which drown men into destruction and perdition. 10 For the desire of money is the root of all evils; which some coveting have erred from the faith, and have entangled themselves in many sorrows. 11 But thou, O man of God, fly these things: and pursue justice, godliness, faith, charity, patience, mildness. 12 Fight the good fight of faith: lay hold on eternal life, whereunto thou art called, and hast confessed a good confession before many witnesses. 13 I charge thee before God, who quickeneth all things, and before Christ Jesus, who gave testimony under Pontius Pilate, a good confession, 14 That thou keep the commandment without spot, blameless, unto the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, 15 Which in his times he shall shew who is the Blessed and only Mighty, the King of kings, and Lord of lords; 16 Who only hath immortality, and inhabiteth light inaccessible, whom no man hath seen, nor can see: to whom be honour and empire everlasting. Amen. 17 Charge the rich of this world not to be highminded, nor to trust in the uncertainty of riches, but in the living God, (who giveth us abundantly all things to enjoy,) 18 To do good, to be rich in good works, to give easily, to communicate to others, 19 To lay up in store for themselves...


Recto Transcription:

[column A]

sed injústis, et non súbditis, ímpiis, et peccatóribus, scelerátis, et contaminátis, parrícidis, et matricídis, homicídis, fornicáriis, masculórum concubitóribus, plagiáriis, mendácibus, et perjúris, et si quid áliud sanæ doctrínæ adversátur, quæ est secúndum Evangélium glóriæ beáti Dei, quod créditum est mihi. Grátias ago ei, qui me confortávit, Christo Jesu Dómino nostro, quia fidélem me existimávit, ponens in ministério: qui prius blasphémus fui, et persecútor, et contumeliósus: sed misericórdiam Dei consecútus sum, quia ignórans feci in incredulitáte. Superabundávit autem grátia Dómini nostri cum fide, et dilectióne, quæ est in Christo Jesu. Fidélis sermo, et omni acceptióne dignus: quod Christus Jesus venit in hunc mundum peccatóres salvos fácere, quorum primus ego sum. Sed ídeo misericórdiam consecútus sum: ut in me primo osténderet Christus Jesus omnem patiéntiam ad informatiónem eórum, qui creditúri sunt illi, in vitam ætérnam. Regi autem sæculórum immortáli, invisíbili, soli Deo honor et glória in sǽcula sæculórum. Amen. Hoc præcéptum comméndo tibi, fili Timóthee, secúndum præcedéntes in te prophetías, ut mílites in illis bonam milítiam, habens fidem, et bonam consciéntiam, quam quidam repelléntes, circa fidem naufragavérunt: ex quibus est Hymenǽus, et Alexánder: quos trádidi Sátanæ, ut discant non blasphemáre. II. Óbsecro ígitur primum ómnium fíeri obsecratiónes, oratiónes, postulatiónes, gratiárum actiónes, pro ómnibus homínibus: pro régibus, et ómnibus qui in sublimitáte sunt, ut quiétam et tranquíllam vitam agámus in omni pietáte, et castitáte: hoc enim bonum est, et accéptum coram Salvatóre nostro Deo, qui omnes hómines vult salvos fíeri, et ad agnitiónem veritátis veníre. Unus enim Deus, unus et mediátor Dei et hóminum homo Christus Jesus: qui dedit redemptiónem semetípsum pro ómnibus, testimónium tempóribus suis: in quo pósitus sum ego prædicátor, et Apóstolus (veritátem dico, non méntior) doctor géntium in fide, et veritáte. Volo ergo viros oráre in omni loco, levántes puras manus sine ira et disceptatióne. Simíliter et mulíeres in hábitu ornáto, cum verecúndia et sobrietáte ornántes se, et non in tortis crínibus, aut auro, aut margarítas, vel veste pretiósa: sed quod decet mulíeres, promitténtes pietátem per ópera bona. Múlier in siléntio discat cum omni subjectióne. Docére autem mulíerem non permítto, neque dominári in virum: sed esse in siléntio. Adam enim primus formátus est: deínde Heva: et Adam non est sedúctus: múlier autem sedúcta in prævaricatióne fuit. Salvábitur autem per filiórum generatiónem, si

[column B]

permánserit in fide, et dilectióne, et sanctificatióne cum sobrietáte. III. Fidélis sermo: si quis episcopátum desíderat, bonum opus desíderat. Opórtet ergo epíscopum irreprehensíbilem esse, uníus uxóris virum, sóbrium, prudéntem, ornátum, pudícum, hospitálem, doctórem, non vinoléntum, non percussórem, sed modéstum: non litigiósum, non cúpidum, sed suæ dómui bene præpósitum: fílios habéntem súbditos cum omni castitáte. Si quis autem dómui suæ præésse nescit, quómodo ecclésiæ Dei diligéntiam habébit? Non neóphytum: ne in supérbiam elátus, in judícium íncidat diáboli. Opórtet autem illum et testimónium habére bonum ab iis qui foris sunt, ut non in oppróbrium íncidat, et in láqueum diáboli. Diáconos simíliter pudícos, non bilíngues, non multo vino déditos, non turpe lucrum sectántes: habéntes mystérium fídei in consciéntia pura. Et hi autem probéntur primum: et sic minístrent, nullum crimen habéntes. Mulíeres simíliter pudícas, non detrahéntes, sóbrias, fidéles in ómnibus. Diáconi sint uníus uxóris viri, qui fíliis suis bene præsint, et suis dómibus. Qui enim bene ministráverint, gradum bonum sibi acquírent, et multam fidúciam in fide, quæ est in Christo Jesu. Hæc tibi scribo, sperans me ad te veníre cito: si autem tardávero, ut scias quómodo opórteat te in domo Dei conversári, quæ est ecclésia Dei vivi, colúmna et firmaméntum veritátis. Et maniféste magnum est pietátis sacraméntum, quod manifestátum est in carne, justificátum est in spíritu, appáruit ángelis, prædicátum est géntibus, créditum est in mundo, assúmptum est in glória. IIII. Spíritus autem maniféste dicit, quia in novíssimis tempóribus discédent quidam a fide, attendéntes spirítibus erróris, et doctrínis dæmoniórum, in hypócrisi loquéntium mendácium, et cauteriátam habéntium suam consciéntiam, prohibéntium núbere, abstinére a cibis, quod Deus creávit ad percipiéndum cum gratiárum actióne fidélibus, et iis qui cognovérunt veritátem. Quia omnis creatúra Dei bona est, et nihil rejiciéndum quod cum gratiárum actióne percípitur: sanctificátur enim per verbum Dei, et oratiónem. Hæc propónens frátribus, bonus eris miníster Christi Jesu enutrítus verbis fídei, et bonæ doctrínæ, quam assecútus es. Inéptas autem, et ániles fábulas dévita: exérce autem teípsum ad pietátem. Nam corporális exercitátio, ad módicum útilis est: píetas autem ad ómnia útilis est, promissiónem habens vitæ, quæ nunc est, et futúræ. Fidélis sermo, et omni acceptióne dignus. In hoc enim laborámus, et maledícimur, quia sperámus in Deum vivum

Verso Transcription:

[column A]

qui est Salvátor ómnium hóminum, máxime fidélium. Prǽcipe hæc, et doce. Nemo adolescéntiam tuam contémnat: sed exémplum esto fidélium in verbo, in conversatióne, in caritáte, in fide, in castitáte. Dum vénio, atténde lectióni, exhortatióni, et doctrínæ. Noli neglígere grátiam, quæ in te est, quæ data est tibi per prophetíam, cum impositióne mánuum presbytérii. Hæc meditáre, in his esto: ut proféctus tuus maniféstus sit ómnibus. Atténde tibi, et doctrínæ: insta in illis. Hoc enim fáciens, et teípsum salvum fácies, et eos qui te áudiunt. V. Seniórem ne increpáveris, sed óbsecra ut patrem: júvenes, ut fratres: anus, ut matres: juvénculas, ut soróres in omni castitáte: víduas honóra, quæ vere víduæ sunt. Si qua autem vídua fílios, aut nepótes habet: discat primum domum suam régere, et mútuam vicem réddere paréntibus: hoc enim accéptum est coram Deo. Quæ autem vere vídua est, et desoláta, speret in Deum, et instet obsecratiónibus, et oratiónibus nocte ac die. Nam quæ in delíciis est, vivens mórtua est. Et hoc prǽcipe, ut irreprehensíbiles sint. Si quis autem suórum, et máxime domesticórum, curam non habet, fidem negávit, et est infidéli detérior. Vídua eligátur non minus sexagínta annórum, quæ fúerit uníus viri uxor, in opéribus bonis testimónium habens, si fílios educávit, si hospítio recépit, si sanctórum pedes lavit, si tribulatiónem patiéntibus subministrávit, si omne opus bonum subsecúta est. Adolescentióres autem víduas dévita: cum enim luxuriátæ fúerint in Christo, núbere volunt: habéntes damnatiónem, quia primam fidem írritam fecérunt; simul autem et otiósæ discunt circuíre domos: non solum otiósæ, sed et verbósæ, et curiósæ, loquéntes quæ non opórtet. Volo ergo junióres núbere, fílios procreáre, matresfamílias esse, nullam occasiónem dare adversário maledícti grátia. Jam enim quædam convérsæ sunt retro Sátanam. Si quis fidélis habet víduas, subminístret illis, et non gravétur ecclésia: ut iis quæ vere víduæ sunt, suffíciat. Qui bene præsunt presbýteri, dúplici honóre digni habeántur: máxime qui labórant in verbo et doctrína. Dicit enim Scriptúra: Non alligábis os bovi trituránti. Et: Dignus est operárius mercéde sua. Advérsus presbýterum accusatiónem noli recípere, nisi sub duóbus aut tribus téstibus. Peccántes coram ómnibus árgue: ut et céteri timórem hábeant. Testor coram Deo et Christo Jesu, et eléctis ángelis, ut hæc custódias sine præjudício,

[column B]

nihil fáciens in álteram partem declinándo. Manus cito némini imposúeris, neque communicáveris peccátis aliénis. Teípsum castum custódi. Noli adhuc aquam bíbere, sed módico vino útere propter stomáchum tuum, et frequéntes tuas infirmitátes. Quorúmdam hóminum peccáta manifésta sunt, præcedéntia ad judícium: quosdam autem et subsequúntur. Simíliter et facta bona, manifésta sunt: et quæ áliter se habent, abscóndi non possunt. VI. Quicúmque sunt sub jugo servi, dóminos suos omni honóre dignos arbitréntur, ne nomen Dómini et doctrína blasphemétur. Qui autem fidéles habent dóminos, non contémnant, quia fratres sunt: sed magis sérviant, quia fidéles sunt et dilécti, qui benefícii partícipes sunt. Hæc doce, et exhortáre. Si quis áliter docet, et non acquiéscit sanis sermónibus Dómini nostri Jesu Christi, et ei, quæ secúndum pietátem est, doctrínæ: supérbus est, nihil sciens, sed languens circa quæstiónes, et pugnas verbórum: ex quibus oriúntur invídiæ, contentiónes, blasphémiæ, suspiciónes malæ, conflictatiónes hóminum mente corruptórum, et qui veritáte priváti sunt, existimántium quæstum esse pietátem. Est autem quæstus magnus píetas cum sufficiéntia. Nihil enim intúlimus in hunc mundum: haud dúbium quod nec auférre quid póssumus. Habéntes autem aliménta, et quibus tegámur, his conténti simus. Nam qui volunt dívites fíeri, íncidunt in tentatiónem, et in láqueum diáboli, et desidéria multa inutília, et nocíva, quæ mergunt hómines in intéritum et perditiónem. Radix enim ómnium malórum est cupíditas: quam quidam appeténtes erravérunt a fide, et inseruérunt se dolóribus malis. Tu autem, o homo Dei, hæc fuge: sectáre vero justítiam, pietátem, fidem, caritátem, patiéntiam, mansuetúdinem. Certa bonum certámen fídei, apprehénde vitam ætérnam, in qua vocátus es, et conféssus bonam confessiónem coram multis téstibus. Præcípio tibi coram Deo, qui vivíficat ómnia, et Christo Jesu, qui testimónium réddidit sub Póntio Piláto, bonam confessiónem, ut serves mandátum sine mácula, irreprehensíbile usque in advéntum Dómini nostri Jesu Christi, quem suis tempóribus osténdet beátus et solus potens, Rex regum, et Dóminus dominántium: qui solus habet immortalitátem, et lucem inhábitat inaccessíbilem: quem nullus hóminum vidit, sed nec vidére potest: cui honor, et impérium sempitérnum. Amen. Divítibus hujus sǽculi prǽcipe non sublíme sápere, neque speráre in incérto divitiárum, sed in Deo vivo (qui præstat nobis ómnia abúnde ad fruéndum) bene ágere, dívites fíeri in bonis opéribus, fácile tribúere, communicáre, thesaurizáre sibi



“E0013 Leaf from an Oxford Bible (Biblia Sacra Latina, Versio Vulgata),” Digital Exhibits | Denison University Archives & Special Collections, accessed April 23, 2019, http://exhibits.denisonarchives.org/items/show/37.